California Dreaming: InterMine Dev Conf 2017 Report – Day 1

2017’s developer conference has been and gone; time to pay my dues in a blog post or two.

Day 0: Welcome dinner, 29 March 2017

The Cambridge InterMine arrived at Walnut Creek without a hitch, and after a jetlagged attempt at a night’s sleep we sat down to a mega-grant-writing session in the hotel lobby, fuelled by several pots of coffee and plates of nachos.

By 7PM, people had begun to gather in the lobby to head to the inaugural conference dinner at the delicious Walnut Creek Yacht Club. We had to change the venue quite late on in the game, meaning we decided to wander down the street to collect some of the InterMiners who had ended up at the original venue (sorry!!). By the end of the meal, most of the UK contingent was dead on their feet – 10pm California time worked out to be 6am according to our body clocks, so when Joe offered to give several of us a lift back to the hotel, it was impossible to decline.

20170329_221945

Day 1: Workshop Intro

The day started with intros from our PI, Gos, and our host, David Goodstein. 

Josh and I followed up by introducing BlueGenes, the UI we’ve been working on to replace InterMine’s older JSP-based UI. You can view Josh’s slide deck , try out a live demoor browse / check out the source on GitHub.

Next came one of my favourite parts: short talks from InterMiners.

Short community talks

Doppelgangers – Joel Richardson, MGI

Joel gave a great presentation about Doppelgangers in InterMine – that is, occasionally, depending on your data sets and config, you can end up with duplicate or strange / incomplete InterMine objects in your mine. He follows up with explanations of the root causes and mitigation methods – a great resource for any InterMiner who is working in data source integration! 

Genetic data in Mines – Sam Hokin, NCGR/LegFed

Next up was Sam’s talk about his various beany mines, including CowpeaMine, which has only genetics data, rather than the more typical InterMine genomic data. He’s also implemented several custom data visualisations on gene report pages – check out the slides or mines for more details.

JBrowse and Inter-mine communication – Vivek Krishnakumar, JCVI

Vivek focused on some great cross-InterMine collaborations (slides here), including the technical challenges integrating JBrowse into InterMine, as well as a method to link to other InterMines using synteny rather than InterMine’s typical homology approach.

InterMine at JGI – Joe Carlson, Phytozome, JGI

Joe has the privilege to run the biggest InterMine, covering (currently) 72 data sets on 69 organisms. Compared to most InterMines, this is massive! Unsurprisingly, this scale comes with a few hitches many of the other mines don’t encounter. Joe’s slides give a great overview of the problems you might encounter in a large-scale InterMine and their solutions.

Afternoon sessions

FAIR and the semantic web – Daniela & Justin

After a yummy lunch at a nearby cafe, Justin introduced the concept of FAIR, and discussed InterMine’s plans for a FAIRer future (slides). Discussion topics included:

  • How to make stable URIs (InterMine object IDs are transient and will change between builds)
  • Enhanced embedded metadata in webpages and query results (data provenance, licencing)
  • Better Findablility (the F in FAIR) by registering InterMine resources with external registries
  • RDF generation / SPARQL querying

This was followed up by Daniela’s introduction to RDF and SPARQL, which provided a great basic intro to the two concepts in an easily-understood manner. I really loved these slides, and I reckon they’d be a good introduction for anyone interested in learning more about what RDF and SPARQL are, whether or not you’re interested in InterMine .

Extending the InterMine Core Data Model – Sergio

Sergio ran the final session, “Extending the InterMine Core Data Model“. Shared models allow for easier cross-InterMine queries, as demoed in the GO tool prototype:

This discussion raised several interesting talking points:

  • Should model extensions be created via community RFC?
  • If so, who is involved? Developers, community members, curators, other?
  • Homologue or homolog? Who knew a simple “ue” could cause incompatibility problems? Most InterMine use the “ue” variation, with the exception of PhytoMine. An answer to this problem was presented in the “friendly mine” section of Vivek’s talk earlier in the day.

Another great output was Siddartha Basu’s gist on setting up InterMine – outlining some pain points and noting the good bits.

Most of us met up for dinner afterwards at Kevin’s Noodle House – highly recommended for meat eaters, less so for veggies.

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Exploring Blazegraph

While we’ve been testing Neo4j with all FlyMine data and with PhytoMine to verify how well it performs and scales with big databases, we started exploring another open source implementation for graph databases: Blazegraph.

Blazegraph overview

Blazegraph is a open source high-performance graph database supporting the RDF data model.

RDF is a model to describe and store data: in this model, you express facts, also known as “statements”, composed by three parts knowns as triples. Each triple is composed of a subject (the resource), the predicate (the property name of the resource) and the object (the property value). For this reasons, Blazegraph is also called a “triples store”.

Subject Predicate Object
http: //flymine.intermine.org/flymine/1007664 :hasSymbol “zen”

Blazegraph supports SPARQL (pronounced “sparkle”), a rich and expressive query language for RDF, which is extremely standardized. Using query operations like union, sort, filter and aggregation, the user can query the data in a very flexible way. With federated queries, the user can aggregate information executing queries distributed over different SPARQL endpoints and consequently discover more data across the web.

Blazegraph provides a SPARQL endpoint where the user can remotely explore, access, and download the data stored using SPARQL language; Blazegraph workbench provides a graphical interface for the REST APIs.

Blazegraph and Neo4j: different graph modelling

In Neo4j, a node in the graph corresponds to an entity in a domain. A node, but also the relationships between the nodes, can contain properties describing the object that it represents.

By contrast, in Blazegraph, the nodes don’t contain properties but primitive data like string, integer, date.

In Neo4j we’ve represented the gene entity and its relation with the organism in this way:

node1

neo4jrelation

In Blazegraph the same concept will be represented as:

blazegraph-post

with the following statements:

triplesOnly one statement represents the relation between the gene and the organism (that one containing the predicate hasOrganism), the others describe the properties of the two entities.

The resources represented in RDF are identified by unique HTTP URIs (in the example http: //flymine.intermine.org/flymine/1007664).

Exporting FlyMine data: Intermine-RDFizer

We have exported all FlyMine data using Intermine-RDFizer.

The Intermine-RDFizer can query any InterMine endpoint via InterMine API, download the tables in tsv files and transform them into RDF nquads based on the XML object model file.

Intermine-RDFizer

The InterMine-RDFizer script converts every row in a table into a RDF resource. The resource type is based on the class name (e.g. Gene, Organism) and the resource URI is built using the column “id”. The script converts the columns in resource properties and builds a RDF literal typed with the column’s name.

blazegrah-triplesFor FlyMine, we have created roughly 365 million triples and imported them into Blazegraph using the REST APIs provided.

Benchmarking

We’ve started testing Blazegraph performance using all FlyMine data imported via InterMine-RDFizer and comparing the results with Neo4j.

As usual, we will keep you updated!